1 Institute of Landscape Architecture, Urban Planning and Garden Art, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
2 Doctoral School of Landscape Architecture and Landscape Ecology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
The increasing urbanization process of the last decades has resulted in negative impacts and changes in the quality of the urban environment, as reflected in mortality and morbidity data (Páldy, 2018). The quality of the environment, the urban climate, the increased frequency and duration of extreme weather events, ultimately threaten human well-being. To design and build liveable cities, the quality of the urban environment must be improved, and improving micro- or local climate is an important factor in this. Increasing the proportion and quality of biologically active surfaces, i.e. the ecosystem services provided by green spaces, is one of the most effective tools for urban conditioning and enhancing human well-being.
Determining the proportions of the green area, the design of vegetation, the choice of pavements and micro-architectures all determine the microclimate of an open-space. This has been confirmed by a large body of research and implemented work, but it is also important for designers to make a preliminary prediction of the impact of any intervention on the climatic conditions of the design site. These predictions will help cost-effective designing to determine which intervention will result in climate change.
This research uses two specific examples to examine the effectiveness of each landscape designing tool and to show which designing tool produces what and how much climatic impact. For these studies, we used a climate modeling program (ENVI-MET), which runs simulations to infer the climate modifying effects of landscape planning tools.
In the course of the research, we have shown that the local climate of hospital gardens could be significantly influenced by favorable, environmental-friend paving, a higher green cover ratio, and a well-developed and sufficiently dense tree canopy, and various water features.