PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ANTIDESMA MONTANUM BLUME LEAF EXTRACT

Farhana ZAMAN 1, Chandan SARKAR 1, Rajib HOSSAIN 1, Shamim MOLLA 1, Apu Kumar DAS 1, Anik Prasad Roy SHUVO 2, Mehedi Hasan BAPPI 1, Olubunmi ATOLANI 3, Muhammad Torequl ISLAM 1*, Razina ROUF 1
1 Department of Pharmacy, Life Science Faculty, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj 8100, Bangladesh
2 Department of Pharmacy, Southern University Bangladesh, Mehedibag, Chattagram 4000, Bangladesh
3 Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

The demand for medicinal plants and their derived substances is increasing day by day due to their relevance in the context of drug discovery and development. The goal of this investigation is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical potentials of the grossly underexplored Antidesma montanum Blume (Family: Phyllanthaceae). The methanolic extract of the leave of this plant was fractionated and then followed by initial screening of phytochemical. The investigation of the pharmacological potential, which includes antioxidant, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anxiolytic evaluations, was accomplished using an in vitro free radical scavenging assay with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), castor oil-induced diarrheal test, egg albumin test, acetic acid-induced writhing model, brewer’s yeast induced fever test, swing test, open field, and light-dark test, respectively. The investigation o phytochemicals proposes that the methanol extract of A. montanum possesses flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, amino acids, fixed oils, and sterols. Pharmacological evaluation suggests that A. montanum possesses significant antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The methanol and chloroform fractions exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activities with an IC50: 103 ± 0.05 and 108.7 ± 0.05 μg/ml, respectively. The methanol and chloroform fractions also showed anti-inflammatory capacities in the egg albumin (IC50 values: 89.10 ± 0.07 and 92.85 ± 0.07 μg/ml, respectively) model. The plant also showed anti-pyretic and anxiolytic activities in a dose-dependent manner. One of the possible sources of phytotherapeutic lead compounds is A. montanum. To extract and analyze the key bioactive components of this essential therapeutic plant, more research is required.